In 1790, the Abbey was secularized, and all of its property, including the library, was confiscated, and the community of monks who ran the library was broken up. [9] He was succeeded by Claude Du Mollinet, librarian from 1673 until 1687. In the 16th and 17th century he library ceased to acquire new books and stopped producing catalogs of its holdings. High in the mountains of Kochi Prefecture, a magnificent library designed by a world-famous architect. The legs made of wood spheres are a bit goofy, but the surfaces make for comfortable viewing of drawings and even videos (visible in the foreground of the photo above). Pingré remained as direct until his death in 1796. The artist Marcel Duchamp was employed in the book reserve in 1913, at the time he was enjoying his first public exhibition in New York. [27] Directors and principal keepers[edit] • Jean Baptiste LeChevalier (1806-1836) • Charles Kohler ( ? See. It is based on the collection of the Abbey of St Genevieve, which was founded in the 6th century by Clovis I, the King of the Franks. Later in the century, the American architect Charles Follen McKim used the Sainte-Geneviève Library building as the model his design of the main building of the Boston Public Library. named for the neighboring Abbey church, then under construction, which had also been confiscated and renamed. • Henri Labrouste – Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève (In French, Standard YouTube License). February 20, 2018 by Melissa Lim. [26] Notable users[edit] Notable users of the library included the paleontologist Georges Cuvier, the botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, the historian Jules Michelet, Victor Hugo, and the philosopher Jules Michelet. If you aren’t a student or a researcher, you cannot enter the room; however, the lady at … It was a major step in the creation of modern architecture.,[20][21] The large (278 by 69 feet) two-storied structure filling a wide, shallow site is deceptively simple in plan: the lower floor is occupied by stacks to the left, rare-book storage and office space to the right, with a central vestibule and stairway leading to the reading room which fills the entire upper story. Henri Labrouste didn’t only add beauty to the library with the 9 glass and steel cupolas but also functionality with this pneumatic tube delivery system, preserved for all to see. 2. You must, therefore, make sure that your pass gives you annual access to INHA with the mention « Lecteur Estampes seul ». Your inscription is valid for both Bnf and INHA. Labrouste is also remembered for his second library project, the reading room (1860–67) of the Bibliothèque Nationale. A grotto-like lodge decorated with gilded mosaics, rocks and a noisy waterfall was the setting for the most sumptuous pleasure house of 1900s Europe. The magnificent restoration of Labrouste’s vaulted reading room, with its iron pillars and pendentived terracotta domes, highlights the technical ingenuity and beauty of the space. p. 48. The Reading Room as it appears today, pre-renovations, Drawing of the Reading Room's inauguration as published in Le Monde, 1868, A view of the Labrouste Reading Room from the days when it contained both books and people. [15] The Labrouste building[edit] After the expulsion of the library from its old site, the government decided to build a new building for the collection. Light filters down into the space by way of skylights, and makes the room’s towering ceilings seem to reach even higher than its five stories. The library opened again for visitors in July 2017 and it is now a centre for education and national culture. He saw the library as an important weapon of the Counter-Reformation against Protestantism. Winner will be selected at random on 02/01/2021. And this is Paris! 71v). See more ideas about st genevieve, paris, architecture. The Wars of Religion seriously disrupted the activities of the library. Earlier this week, Kate and I had the pleasure of photographing an American expat, Gretchen, for Our Paris Stories. [24] It also influenced the design of university libraries in the United States, including Low Memorial Library at Columbia University in New York and the Doe Library of the University of California at Berkeley by John Galen Howard, also a former student of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Labrouste war das jüngste Kind des Politikers François-Marie Labrouste (17621835), einem Mitglied des Rats der Fünfhundert und dessen Ehefrau Anne-Dominique Gourg (17641851). The library in which his reading room still sits was the second of two building projects that continue to garner the most acclaim for the architect (the Bibliothèque Ste.-Geneviève being the other). The Library was still attached to the Abbey and the University of Paris, but it ceased to be a library of theology only; by the mid-eighteenth century a majority of the works were in other fields of knowledge. Enzymes are biocatalysts evolved in nature to achieve the speed and coordination of nearly all the chemical reactions that define cellular metabolism necessary to develop and maintain life. He donated six hundred volumes from his personal collection,. [4] From 1108 tp 113, the scholar Peter Abelard taught at the Abbey school, challenging many aspects of traditional theology and philosophy. Around about 1108, the theology school of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, was joined together with the School of Notre Dame Cathedral and the school of the Royal Palace to form the future University of Paris. At the time of the fall of Napoleon, the library had a collection of one hundred ten thousand books and manuscripts. The most impressive room is definitely the Labrouste Reading Room. [7] The library was brought back to life beginning in 1619, during the reign of Louis XIII of France, by Cardinal Francois de Rochefoucauld. [5] By the early 13th century the university library was already famous throughout Europe. External links[edit], Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève. It was to be demolished to make way for the new library. To accomplish this, the seating plan of the reading room was drastically changed; the original plan had long tables which stretched the entire length of the room, divide by a central spine of bookshelves, making the room seem even longer. – 1917) • Charles Mortet (1917–1922) • Paul Roux-Fouillet (1977–1987) • Geneviève Boisard (1987–1997) • Nathalie Jullian (1997–2006) • Yves Peyré (2006–2015) • François Michaud (2015 – ) In popular culture[edit] The library’s interior was used as the Film Academy Library for scenes of Martin Scorsese’s Academy Award-winning 3D film Hugo, based on Brian Selznick’s Caldecott Medal-winning novel The Invention of Hugo Cabret, where the title character and Isabelle go to find more information about a film which Hugo did not remember its name (A Trip to the Moon), later both finding out to their surprise that its creator is Georges Méliès, Isabelle’s godfather. Please click below to consent to the use of this technology while browsing our site. 25th September 2016 Uncategorized. However, the Library did manage to retain a large number of objects, including the celebrated astronomical clock, the oldest example of its kind, acquired by the library in about 1695, and a variety of terrestrial and celestial globes, as well as objects illustrating cultures around the world, which are on display in the library today. The Salle Labrouste, a reading room in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in the Rue de Richelieu, Paris, and built between 1862 and 1868. [24] It had originally been occupied by the medieval Collége Montaigu, where Erasmus and Ignatius of Loyola, John Calvin and François Rabelais. The manuscripts were of considerable value: each manuscript was marked with a warning notice that any person who stole or damaged a manuscript would be punished anathema, or the excommunication from the church. He had received few architectural commissions, but in 1838 he received the title of Inspector of Historic Monuments, and in this capacity he began to plan the new building. [23] Labrouste went on to design the Salle Labrouste, the main reading room in the old Bibliothèque Nationale de France in the Rue de Richelieu, Paris, built between 1862 and 1868. "The Reading Room is covered with a series of nine pendentived simple domes of terra-cotta, supported by twelve slender columns of iron, aranged in four rows, the outer columns standing close to the walls." [13] The early 19th century[edit] The library continued to flourish in the early 19th century, under the French Directory and then the Empire of Napoleon. [8] The new library director, Jean Fronteau, reached out to writers including Pierre Corneille, and famous librarians including Gabriel Naudé, to update and expand the collection. A glass partition separated readers from many of the stacks, containing a staggering quantity of information. 782)  • The birth of King Philip-Augustus (1275-1280) (Grandes Chroniques de France, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Ms. 782, folio 280)  • Illumination in a manuscript of Livy, Ab urbe conduit, showing the foundation of Rome. We would like to reassure our customers that we are observing government advice on COVID-19 and adhering to all guidance and best practice. His read- ing rooms are magical spaces. Labrouste went on to design the Salle Labrouste, the main reading room in the old Bibliothèque Nationale de France in the Rue de Richelieu, Paris, built between 1862 and 1868. The primary decorative element of the facade is a list of names of famous scholars. [11] • The Astronomical Clock (17th century)  • The celestial globe, from the cabinet of curiosities (17th century)  • Ceremonial Arawak baton from Cabinet of Curiosities (17t-18th century)  • Bust of the naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon by Jean-Antoine Houdon (18th century) The Revolution and its aftermath[edit] Following the French Revolution, the status of the Library changed dramatically. Quai … While the settlement on the Ile-de-la-Cité was protected by the river, the abbey of Saint-Genevieve was sacked, and the books lost or carried away. The Labrouste reading room at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Site Richelieu, in Paris. Offer subject to change without notice. The collection of the library had more than doubled in size, and needed more space. had been students. In typical Labrouste fashion, the architect found a way to harness the strength of one “ugly” substance in order to let other “pretty” materials soar — in spite of their weakness. The abbey was said to have been founded at the beginning of the 6th century at the suggestion of Saint Genevieve, who selected the site, across from the original Roman forum. After the Revolution that building had been transformed into a hospital and then a military prison, and was largely in ruins. The site chosen was close to the old library. Inspired by Parisian markets and railway stations, the Labrouste Reading Room is known for the 16, arboreal iron pillars propping up a series of pendentived terra cotta domes. Further reading[edit] • “New Library”. Sign up for our newsletter and enter to win the second edition of our book. From then on, the Kings of France gathered books in their own library. References Henri Labrouste; Corinne Bélier; Barry Bergdoll; Marc Le Cœur; Martin Bressan; Neil Levine (2012). [18][19] Unlike earlier buildings, the major decorative element of the building was not on the facade, but in the architecture of the reading room. We depend on ad revenue to craft and curate stories about the world’s hidden wonders. The two institutions battled for space between 1812 and 1842. Due to the diplomatic skills of the director, Alexandre Pingré, his reputation as an astronomer and geographer, and his contacts within the new government, the collection was not dispersed, and actually grew, as the library took in the collections confiscated from other Abbeys. His achievement is one whose combined power and delicacy continues to be cited in textbooks to this day. [16] The architect chosen for the project was Henri Labrouste Born in 1801, he had studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where won the Prix de Rome in 1824, and spent six years studying Italian classical and Renaissance architecture. The bookstacks, directly to the south of the reading room, were designed, also by Labrouste, as a … shevyvision: “Rumored to be the inspiration for Hogwarts, this is the Henri Labrouste Reading Room at Sainte-Genevieve Library. Henri Labrouste (French, 1801-1875). The number of seats in the reading room was doubled to seven hundred fifty. The Museum of Modern Art. Constructed from 1859–75, Labrouste’s neoclassical masterpiece debuted to much fanfare, both popular and critical. 1852. Even during his own lifetime, Labrouste was renowned for his ability to close the space between beauty and practicality — and nowhere is this more evident than in the reading room that bears his name, inside the Richelieu-Louvois annex of France’s National Library. His project was confirmed by the Chamber of Deputies in 1843, and a budget voted. Reading Room: 7 Captivating Personal Libraries. It was the first library in Paris to be constructed specifically as a library. However, the library shared the 18th century building of the old Abbey Sainte-Genevieve with s prestigious school, originally known as the central school of the Pantheon, then as the Lycée Napoleon, and then and today as the Lycée Henri IV. It also appears as a setting in works of fiction, including in Les Illusions Perdues of Honoré de Balzac, in the novels of Simone de Beauvoir, in Ulysses of James Joyce and the writings of Guillaume Apollinaire. The 226 titles and authors included in the 13th century inventory include bibles, commentaries and ecclesiastical history; but also books on philosophy, law, science and literature. The early holdings of the library from this time are listed in a 13th-century inventory (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS lat. In the same spirit, the library and the Cabinet of Curiosities were opened to the public. [6] • First page of The Book of Genesis, Bible of Manerius (circa 1185), (BSG Ms.8 f7)  • Illuminated manuscript of the Coronation of King Louis IV of France (1275-1280) (Grandes Chroniques de France Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève,Ms. The texts created or copied included works of history and literature, as well as theology, However, in the course of the 9th century, the Vikings raided Paris three times. Follow us on social media to add even more wonder to your day. The Portuguese novelist Aquilino Ribeiro was a user of the library. Today the library is classified as a national library, a university library and a public library. [3] The library was gradually reassembled. This resource is enriched by the … During the reign of King Charles the 5th (1364-1380), a special room was fit in the Louvre to house 917 books. “Henri Labrouste: Structure Brought to Light,” at the Museum of Modern Art, is elegant and astringent, like Labrouste’s work. Behind the pink curtain, Au Bonheur du Jour, an art gallery of erotic archives. The reading rooms are part of the BnF Research Library. Yet perhaps the most fascinating element of Labrouste’s design is invisible to the eye: a huge system of pneumatic tubes designed to bring books to and from readers. Atlas Obscura and our trusted partners use technology such as cookies on our website to personalise ads, support social media features, and analyse our traffic. He traveled to Rome, following Napoleon’s army, and arranged for the transfer to Paris of books confiscated from the Papal collections. Du Mollinet founded a famous small museum, the Cabinet of Curiosities, with Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities, medals, rare minerals and stuffed animals, within in the library. The doctrines originally taught by Saint Augustine, and promoted by Suger (1081-1151), the influential religious advisor to the King, required the reading aloud of scriptures, and specified that each monastery have a workshop to produce books and place to keep them. At the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Labrouste was one of the first to introduce gas lighting into an architectural composition, using … The cathedral stands in New Jufa, Isfahan's Armenian quarter that was established in 1606. The later computerization of the catalog created space for an additional one hundred seats. The collection of the library was saved from destruction during the French Revolution. The library was granted equal status with the National Library, the future Mazarine Library and Arsenal Library, and could draw books from the same sources. In 1537, King François 1st introduces the deposit of any printed book for sale in … Books cited[edit] Peyré, Yves (2011). She died in 502 and Clovis died in 511, and the basilica was completed in 520. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris: the reading room Coronavirus update: Our printing service continues to operate as usual, with framed and unframed prints available for delivery in normal timescales. [22] The monumental staircase from the ground floor to the reading room is placed so it doesn’t take any space from the reading room. At the time, visitors could witness the rapid distribution of documents from behind the glass wall, to patrons within the reading room. In the new plan, the central bookshelves were removed and tables crossed the room, increasing the seating but reducing the linear effect. Though the library was supported by famous writers, including Victor Hugo and Jules Michelet, the son of King Louis-Philippe was a student at the lycée, and the lycée won. The Salle Labrouste, a reading room in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in the Rue de Richelieu, Paris, and built between 1862 and 1868. Again and again, Labrouste returned to the use of iron in his work. • New Testament from the Abbey Sainte-Geneviève depicting the entry of Christ into Jerusalem Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève,(circa 1525-1530) (Ms. 106 f1r (Entrée à Jérusalem) 15th Century to the 18th century[edit] Shortly after Gutenberg produced his first printed books in the mid-15th century, the library began collecting printed books. Most well known for two luminous library reading rooms built in Paris in the 1800s, the Bibliothèque nationale de France (1838–50) and the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève (1859–75), Labrouste has been long admired by both modernists and postmodernists for his innovative embrace of then-new technologies, like cast iron and gas lighting. No purchase necessary. The anticipated completion date is 2020. All rights reserved. Drawings are displayed on retro, pseudo-drafting tables. [17] The new library showed the influence of the prevailing academic beaux-arts style and the influence of Florence and Rome, but in other ways it was strikingly original. While the Abbey still paid part of the cost, the major part was paid by the City of Paris. Since the Lycée wanted the space as soon as possible, all the books had been moved in 1842 to a temporary library in the only surviving building of Montaigu College. After architect Henri Labrouste’s death, the library was expanded again to include the Oval Reading Room. Seine Geschwister waren Étienne (17921858), Alexandre (17961866), Marie-Anne (17971885) und Théodore (17991885). Like Atlas Obscura and get our latest and greatest stories in your Facebook feed. [12] In 1796, the name of the library was changed; it became the National Library of the Pantheon. It was located near the present church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont and the present Panthéon, which was built atop the original abbey church. There is the cast iron tinge of a Labrouste Reading Room, the glistening interiors of Copenhagen’sBlack Diamond, the Brutalist bibliotheques that once sprouted from the grounds of every second university campus. Like us on Facebook to get the latest on the world's hidden wonders. The first record of the existence of the Sainte-Genevieve library dates from 831, and mentions the donation of three texts to the Abbey. This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager. A new reading room for the library, with an innovative iron frame supporting the roof, was built between 1838 and 1851 by architect Henri Labrouste. Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, 1838-1850. Natural ‘zenithal’ lighting filters between these … Join Atlas Obscura and Tastemade for a journey through the botanical side of Paris, from hidden flower farms to one of France's oldest fragrance houses. The Reading Room of Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève. The results of the first phase of the two-phase renovation process, expected to finish in 2020, are pretty stunning: The spectacular Labrouste Reading Room … The ferrous structure of this reading room—a spine of slender, cast-iron Ionic columns dividing the space into twin aisles and supporting openwork iron arches that carry barrel vaults of plaster reinforced by iron mesh—has always been revered by Modernists for its introduction of high technology into a monumental building. © 2021 Atlas Obscura. Henri Labrouste: Subscribers - login to skip ads: Location: Paris, France map: Date: 1843 designed, built 1845 to 1851 timeline: Building Type: library: Construction System: bearing masonry and iron spans: Climate: temperate: Context: urban: Style: Italian Renaissance Revival: Notes: Monumental long vaulted reading room. A more serious change was made between 1928 and 1934. (c. 1370) The manuscript belonged to king Charles V of France. Gleason’s Pictorial. Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève. It was open not only to students, but also to French and foreign scholars. The vestibule was designed to symbolize the beginning of a journey in search of knowledge, the visitors arrives through a space decorated with murals of gardens and forest and passes busts of famous French scholars and scientists. — Sir Bannister Fletcher, A History of Architecture, p1206. To learn more or withdraw consent, please visit our cookie policy. Including the painted dome, can still be seen within the Lycée, the library the. The Lycée ( including Puerto Rico ) pleasure of photographing an American expat, Gretchen for... Under suspicion of being a heretical Jansenist death in 1796, the library had more than doubled size... Spirit, the library was directed by a Pierre-Claude Francois Daunou library more... Was directed by a world-famous architect stacks, containing a staggering quantity of information part the. 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